Updated to Debian testing

Just waved goodbye to the heavy Gnome and leaped to Xfce.
Here's the desktop I'm proud of and currently using.


I've just upgraded my Debian 8.6 to testing following the Official Tutorial. The steps:

  1. Edit your /etc/apt/sources.list file,

    1. changing stable (or the current codename for stable) to testing (or the current code name for the next stable release).

    2. Remove or comment out your stable security updates line(s) (anything with security.debian.org in it).

    3. Remove or comment out any other stable-specific lines, like *-backports or *-updates.

  2. Run the following command to get new versions and security updates. U could run it every time u want to update.

    apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

    If you notice that some packages are not upgraded you should also try this:

    apt-get dist-upgrade

    But beware that this command will also install or remove packages, so do check carefully all proposed actions before proceeding.

  3. Check the version to see if it succeeds using the following command (Source):

    cat /etc/debian_version

    For me, the output is 9.0. So it's a success!


Stop the display manager

(Source) There might be some errors afterwards, for example, when trying to install Chromium, I had to stop the xdm:

/etc/init.d/xdm/ stop

If u need to stop gdm, do this:

sudo /etc/init.d/gdm stop

If u need to stop kdm, do:

sudo /etc/init.d/kdm stop

Watch the commands carefully

There might be some prompt about what to do in the Terminal, for example, I was prompted to do this several times to fix the false installation:

apt-get -f install

Reinstall things

During the process something u need might be deleted, check it.

For example, Xfce4 mixer was removed and no longer available in Stretch so I had to install the alternatives to get another volume button in my panel (Source):

sudo apt install xfce4-pulseaudio-plugin pavucontrol

Also I had to re-install catfish:

sudo apt install catfish

and a lot of things. I won't show everything here 'cause ur case might be rather different from mine.


Shadowsocks suddenly became unusable, and after searching I found a solution:

  1. Edit the openssl.py:

    sudo nano /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/shadowsocks/crypto/openssl.py

    The path might be different, u could check where shadowsocks is located:

    sudo pip shadowsocks

    As for me, it returned these:

    Requirement already satisfied: shadowsocks in /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages
  2. Find cleanup, u'll find it among this:

    libcrypto.EVP_CIPHER_CTX_cleanup.argtypes = (c_void_p,)

    Change the cleanup to reset:

    libcrypto.EVP_CIPHER_CTX_reset.argtypes = (c_void_p,)
  3. Find cleanup again, u'll find it among this:


    Change the cleanup to reset again:

  4. Save & Exit.

  5. Run the shadowsocks again!

Switch the browser to Chrome (05 Feb 2017)

Yep I know Firefox is nice and it's my default browser when I was using a Windows system. It's the best choice for oldies like Windows XP, offering the access to SSL sites using SNI.

However I found Chromium less power-hungry and decided to switch to it. I tried and found it impossible to install extensions into the Chromium browser, every time it just returned "Installation is not enabled". Yep, I searched and tried and didn't found a solution.

So I downloaded Google Chrome from Google directly and it was able to install Proxy SwitchyOmega, what's more, the Chrome supports Flash by default! And SwitchyOmega is better than the proxy plugin in Firefox!

Switch the browser to Chromium (13 Feb 2017)

Yesterday I reinstalled my Debian 'cause Nvidia broke it and made it impossible to access the Display Manager. So I reinstalled Chrome and unfortunately it didn't download and enable Flash automatically, making me tryin' to figure out a way to get Chromium working.

The things that prevented me from using Chromium:

  1. Every time I tried to install an extention, the browser would refuse to do it with the message "Installation is not enabled".
  2. I couldn't figure out a way to add Flash support to it after following the steps on Debian Wiki.

After googlin' I found this and that helpful. Here is the solution:

  1. Edit /etc/chromium.d/default-flags using the editor u like, I'm using Xfce so I ran:

    sudo thunar /etc/chromium.d/default-flags
  2. Insert the code in the end and save

    # extension
    export CHROMIUM_FLAGS="$CHROMIUM_FLAGS --enable-remote-extensions"
    # Flash
    export CHROMIUM_FLAGS="$CHROMIUM_FLAGS --ppapi-flash-path=/usr/lib/adobe-flashplugin/libpepflashplayer.so --ppapi-flash-version="

    Note that /usr/lib/adobe-flashplugin/libpepflashplayer.so is the path of the Flash plugin for Chromium, to download it, click here in ur Chromium and download the .tar.gz for Linux.
    Upon finishing downloading, u can extract it and find Installing using the plugin tar.gz: in the readme.txt and follow the step. As for me, it's:

    Unpack the plugin tar.gz and copy all the files to /usr/lib/adobe-flashplugin/

    The file of the plugin is libpepflashplayer.so, so after copyin', I see the path is /usr/lib/adobe-flashplugin/libpepflashplayer.so

2017-04-01 Update: I found on my newly updated Debian Sid that the following command works, making the manual way above useless! The following command add Flash Plugin to both Firefox and Chromium:

sudo apt install browser-plugin-freshplayer-pepperflash

Nvidia driver (13 Feb 2017)

To install that on Debian, read and follow this wiki.

After installing and executing nvidia-xconfig and rebooting, I found the system boot into blank screen.

After googing, I found this and pressed Alt+Ctrl+F1 and followed the step rburkholder's post mentioned (Yep my Debian is 64 bit):

sudo apt-get install nvidia-kernel-3.16.0-4-amd64

Then it rebooted into blank again, so I pressed Alt+Ctrl+F1 and uninstalled nvidia-xconfig:

sudo apt purge nvidia-xconfig

Nothing happened, and I then deleted the configuration file:

sudo rm /etc/X11/xorg.conf

This time it booted into lightdm again!

I read the part about configuration on the wiki again and found this:

However, the configuration described below should not be applied to Nvidia Optimus systems; on such systems, the primary X display is driven by your Intel GPU, which is autodetected by X. See Bumblebee for more details on how to configure an Optimus system.

So I followed the link Bumblebee and installed Bumblebee.

2017-04-01 Update: The way above is outdated and useless for Nvidia Optimus, making the battery life shorter. Check this post out and find "Use Intel Graphical Card".

No sound in headphones when it is connected to the laptop

Thank AskUbuntu for helping me again!

Run this one in Terminal.


Press F6 and select HDA Intel PCH and test.


If u haven't tried Debian and wanna give a try, read my last post about the installation first. The best way to install the testing version is install the current stable version first and update to the testing version afterwards!